CFDS Discussion Paper Series

CFDS is publishing the CFDS Discussion Paper Series focused on studies on financial economics, finance, macroeconomics, and international economics to give all researchers related to our center and Henan University, as well as members of our cooperation partners a chance to publish their ideas and reach a broader academic audience. CFDS Dicsussion Papers are indexed on RePEc.

 

 

CFDS is publishing the CFDS Discussion Paper Series focused on studies on financial economics, finance, macroeconomics, and international economics to give all researchers related to our center and Henan University, as well as members of our cooperation partners a chance to publish their ideas and reach a broader academic audience. CFDS Dicsussion Papers are indexed on RePEc.

Papers are accepted and published in English only.

 

How to participate?

  1. Submit your paper

    There is no deadline for submission and we are reviewing papers on an ongoing basis. To submit please:
    1. Send an email to Kerstin El-Shagi (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.); subject line: CFDS Discussion Papers "The title of your paper"
    2. Include your full name; email; mobile number; institutional affiliation
    3. Attach your paper

    Language Editing: If you require to edit your paper before submitting it, we can recommend using American Journal Experts. If you are looking for a cheaper alternative, individuals on fiverr offer English language editing too.

  2. Peer review: Papers are peer-reviewed and chosen on a rolling basis upon submission. You will be asked to respond to the reviewer´s comments.

  3. Publication: Each Discussion Paper is published and disseminated widely through CFDS's website as well as indexed on RePEc. We are aware that the papers represent preliminary work and are circulated to encourage discussion with you as author. We publish digitally only.

Rong Li, Dongzhou Mei, Bing Tong

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/6

Abstract

We introduce gradual adjustment costs for both domestic and foreign bonds in a New Keynesian small open economy model, unifying the theories of foreign exchange intervention and the liquidity effect. With gradual adjustment for foreign bonds, interest rate differentials lead to persistent capital flows. With adjustment costs for domestic bonds, open market operations generate a stronger liquidity effect, which has real effects in an environment with costly intermediation. Furthermore, under gradual portfolio adjustment, nominal interest rates change temporarily in response to asset transactions, so that the model can restore equilibrium when the steady-state asset ratios have changed.

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Makram El-ShagiYishuo Ma

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/5

Abstract

While policy reaction functions of most major central banks are routinely approximated by fitting Taylor (type) rules to their policy rate, there is no such consensus for the People’s Bank of China (PBoC). What makes it hard to get a clear impression of the “true” reaction function is that most papers in the extensive literature focus on a single aspect of the reaction function typically mostly comparing it to one (or a few) widely used baseline models. Contrarily, we assess a broad range of questions regarding the reaction function in a unified approach, estimating several hundred reaction functions. While we find that no single policy measure fully captures all aspects of the PBoC’s policy, our paper provides clear evidence for asymmetric behavior, support for an important role of monetary aggregates, and robust evidence for the PBoC considering both financial stability and exchange rate stabilization in its policy deliberations.

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Makram El-ShagiSteven Yamarik

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/4

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of Federal Reserve policy on income inequality across US states. We use the local projections method of Jorda to estimate impulse response functions for each state. We find that a restrictive monetary policy increases income inequality in almost all states, but with different magnitudes. Subsequent panel analysis examines the possible transmission mechanisms that can account for these differences. Our empirical results confirm the theoretical predictions - inequality is increased by higher inflation, home ownership, and earnings in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE) sector; but decreased by higher housing prices, unionization rates, educational attainment and minimum wage.

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Makram El-Shagi

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/2

Abstract

In this paper, we assess the impact of monetary policy shocks on the income distribution in the Eurozone after the Global Financial Crisis, i.e., a time of unconventional monetary policy. Unlike previous papers that focus on the precrisis era, where monetary policy was primarily conducted through interest rates, expansionary policy typically increases inequality. This can be mitigated by highly developed financial markets and sound institutions that limit rent seeking.

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Makram El-Shagi

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/3

Abstract

In this paper, we reinterpret a novel approach that was designed to assess policy optimality given a known objective function. In the spirit of Uhlig's "quantitative interpretation", we reverse engineer the results to allow the estimation of the objective function, assuming that the policymaker aims for optimality. We show, that the Fed - despite its dual mandate - places far greater weight on business cycle stabilization than on combating inflation.

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Makram El-Shagi, Kiril Tochkov

CFDS Discussion Paper 2024/1

Abstract

Unitary monetary policy in large emerging economies with substantial regional disparities is likely to have heterogeneous effects with unintended consequences. This paper explores the regional effects of monetary policy in China by estimating the response of a series of provincial variables to a national monetary policy shock using quarterly data over the period 1999-2022. Regional heterogeneity is assessed by comparing the results from a fixed-effects and a mean-group estimator. The response of consumer prices and loans is found to be homogeneous across provinces, while that of output and property prices exhibits significant regional variation. Further analysis of the differential response for two provincial clusters indicates that output in Western China experiences faster drops after a contractionary monetary policy shock and takes longer to recover than in Eastern and Central China. In the same context, property prices react with a delay and endure a more gradual recovery after the shock. The advancement of market institutions, the share of state-owned enterprises, and the size of the private sector are identified as potential determinants of the differential response across the two regional clusters.

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Makram El-ShagiSteven Yamarik

CFDS Discussion Paper 2023/4

Abstract

This paper applies a penalized synthetic control method to estimate the growth effects of European Union (EU) enlargement. A penalized synthetic control estimator introduces a penalty term in the synthetic matching algorithm that penalizes discrepancies between the treated economy and its synthetic counterpart. We use this estimator to construct counterfactuals of the growth rate of GDP per capita for the EU accession countries. Standard synthetic control results show that a country’s accession into the EU generates an almost uniform positive impact on the level of real GDP per capita. However, by applying the penalized synthetic control estimator to the growth rate, we find that most of these positive effects become insignificant and some even become negative.

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Makram El-Shagi, Kiril Tochkov

CFDS Discussion Paper 2023/3

Abstract

This paper explores the presence of regional heterogeneity in the response of inflation to changes in the output gap in China. We estimate the slope of the provincial Phillips curve for five different price indices using quarterly data over the period 2000-2022. The presence of regional heterogeneity is tested by comparing a fixed effects and a mean group specification. Our results indicate that the slope of the provincial Phillips curve in China is positive and significant for property prices and the producer price index (PPI), which is explained by their focus on non-tradables and goods specific to the local economy, respectively. Other price indices centered on tradables do not show significant sensitivity to provincial output shocks. Regional heterogeneity in the provincial slope is confirmed only in the case of the PPI with around 60% of provinces, including most coastal provinces, exhibiting a positive coefficient. Our findings point to the share of industry and the market power of industrial enterprises as significant contributors to the sensitivity of inflation to provincial demand shocks. Moreover, we show that a stronger market-orientation and a smaller role of the state in a given province are also positively associated with the slope of the Phillips curve.

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Qiaoyu Liang, Yihao Xue, Bing Tong

CFDS Discussion Paper 2023/2

Abstract

Are technology shocks contractionary or expansionary when interest rates are inflexible? This paper studies this issue based on Chinese data during the interest rate reform. We decompose the technology shock into permanent and transitory components and investigate their macroeconomic effects based on the New Keynesian model and the local projection method. Our empirical results show that interest rate fixation amplifies the effects of permanent technology shocks: a positive shock generates higher output and inflation during the period of fixed interest rates. This result is consistent with the New Keynesian model’s prediction for permanent technology shocks. However, the empirical results for transitory technology shocks are insignificant.

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Makram El-Shagi, Lunan Jiang

CFDS Discussion Paper 2023/1

Abstract

In this paper, we assess the impact of the Medium-term Lending Facility (MLF), an instrument recently introduced by the People's Bank of China (PBoC), on treasury and corporate bond yields. This instrument and, more specifically, the transmission of its use through treasury bond yields to corporate bond yields plays a major role in the more market-based policy the PBoC envisions for the future. Using a semi-parametric local projection framework, we show that the mechanism is already fairly effective, allowing the PBoC to manipulate the entire yield curve.

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Makram El-Shagi, Lin Zhang

CFDS Discussion Paper 2022/2

Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) for the conduct of fiscal policy in China using both a structural VAR based on macroeconomic data and a panel model utilizing firm-level data. We show that SOEs respond fundamentally differently to fiscal policy shocks than non-SOEs. Our results strongly indicate that SOEs are not merely competition to non-SOEs but rather that their resources are leveraged as part of fiscal policy to support and stabilize the private economy.   

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Yihao Xue, Qiaoyu Liang, Bing Tong

CFDS Discussion Paper 2022/1

Abstract

Based on a New Keynesian model with a transient interest rate peg and energy inputs in production, we examine the impact of China’s interest rate liberalization on the transmission of energy supply shocks. Theoretical analysis shows that in the face of negative supply shocks, output decreases less or even increases while inflation rises more under a fixed interest rate compared with a flexible interest rate. We construct the Divisia energy index based on Chinese data to test the model predictions. We identify energy supply shocks following the strategy of Kilian (2009) and obtain impulse responses using the local projection method proposed by Jord`a (2005). The empirical results are consistent with our model predictions.

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Makram El-Shagi

CFDS Discussion Paper 2021/3

Abstract

In this paper we assess the impact of election uncertainty on financial markets using the almost unique natural experiment provided by the 2020 US presidential election. Overshadowed by the COVID-19 crisis and the corresponding changes in election law and behavior – especially with respect to mail-in voting – the counting process generated huge swings in the expected election outcome. All those were purely driven by counting, i.e. after the voting process was finished, giving us the rare opportunity to observe truly exogenous swings in election risk. We show that election risk has a negative impact on economic expectations and that expectations in favor of Trump did not correlate with the positive economic implications that the literature has demonstrated for previous Republican candidates.

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Makram El-Shagi, Yishuo Ma

CFDS Discussion Paper 2021/2

Abstract

Over the past decade, several dozen papers have been written that identify the People’s Bank of China’s monetary policy shocks. Yet, what often seems like minor differences in measurements of monetary policy and identifying assumptions yield vastly different implied shocks. In this paper, we pitch 20 shock time series from the literature against each other in a horse race. We use a local projections framework to produce impulse responses based on all shocks for production, prices, money and interest rates and use them to assess the economic plausibility of the competing results. Our results confirm the frequently mentioned relevance of monetary aggregates for Chinese monetary policy but also point the importance of using forward looking policy reaction functions (or account for forward looking variables in a VAR framework) when identifying monetary policy shocks.

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Makram El-Shagi, Kiril Tochkov

CFDS Discussion Paper 2021/1

Abstract

The lack of developed financial markets and well-functioning transmission channels assigns monetary aggregates in emerging economies the potential role of nominal anchor, intermediate target, or informational variable for monetary policy. The effectiveness of this approach relies crucially on the correct measurement of money, which is not fulfilled by the conventional index based on the simple sum of financial assets. This paper calculates alternative Divisia monetary aggregates for Russia over the period 1998-2019, which account for the level of liquidity of a given monetary asset by assigning weights according to the usefulness of that asset for transaction services. Divisia is found to follow a growth pattern markedly different from the simple sum, whereby deviations between the two series are even more pronounced when foreign-currency accounts are included. We conduct three empirical exercises to demonstrate the advantages of Divisia over the simple sum. Divisia confirms the stability of the money demand function and reflects portfolio shifts in response to changes in the opportunity cost of simple sum. Lastly, Divisia mitigates the price puzzle phenomenon relative to the conventional measure. We conclude that Divisia monetary aggregates would improve the effectiveness of monetary policy in Russia. 

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Jonathan Benchimol, Sergey Ivashchenko

CFDS Discussion Paper 2020/8

Abstract

Uncertainty about an economy's regime can change drastically around a crisis. An imported crisis such as the global financial crisis in the euro area highlights the effect of foreign shocks. Estimating an open-economy nonlinear dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model for the euro area and the United States including Markov-switching volatility shocks, we show that these shocks were significant during the global financial crisis compared with periods of calm. We describe how US shocks from both the real economy and financial markets affected the euro area economy and how bond reallocation occurred between short- and long-term maturities during the global financial crisis. Importantly, the estimated nonlinearities when domestic and foreign financial markets influence the economy, should not be neglected. The nonlinear behavior of market-related variables highlights the importance of higher-order estimation for providing additional interpretations to policymakers.

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Makram El-Shagi, Kiril Tochkov

CFDS Discussion Paper 2020/7

Abstract

Closer integration between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the EUCloser integration between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the EU has opened up channels facilitating the propagation of economic shocks from the core to the eastern periphery. This paper examines the effects of such shocks to economic activity and monetary conditions originating in the Euro area (EA) on output, prices, money, and interest rates in 10 CEE countries over the period 2005-2018 using a bilateral restricted VAR framework. In contrast to previous studies, we use Divisia monetary aggregates and compare the effects of EA spillovers to domestic shocks. The results indicate that EA shocks explain the majority of variation across all macroeconomic indicators, with money supply shocks playing the most prominent role. Despite some heterogeneity, the impulse response of monetary aggregates to domestic andEA monetary shocks is almost identical across countries. The impact of the EA shock increases over time and persists, while the domestic shock dies out relatively quickly. Accordingly, we find no meaningful monetary independence in the majority of CEE countries. This is likely to prove detrimental to the effectiveness of monetary policies in CEE.

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Jonathan BenchimolMakram El-Shagi, Yossi Saadon

CFDS Discussion Paper 2020/6

Abstract

Each person's characteristics may influence that person's behaviors and their outcomes. We build and use a new database to estimate experts' performance and boldness based on their experience and characteristics. We classify experts providing inflation forecasts based on their education, experience, gender, and environment. We provide alternative interpretations of factors affecting experts' inflation forecasting performance, boldness, and pessimism by linking behavioral economics, the economics of education, and forecasting literature. An expert with previous experience at a central bank appears to have a lower propensity for predicting deflation.

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Makram El-Shagi, Lunan Jiang, Lin Zhang

CFDS Discussion Paper 2020/5

Abstract

In recent years, one of the PBoC′s major issues was to avoid a generally conservative monetary policy that would jeopardize the central government′s poverty-alleviation strategy by limiting credit supply in rural areas where it is already scarce. We develop a range of new indicators to measure those aspects of the PBoC′s policy and demonstrate that the PBoC has successfully implemented policies targeted at poor counties. That is, we show that a central bank has the general potential to address regional diversity and distributional issues.

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